Renal dysfunction and the associated decrease in survival after elective endovascular aneurysm repair

Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery
Zarkowsky DS, Hicks CW, Bostock IC, Stone DH, Eslami M, Goodney PP
Year Published 2016
Link to publication

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The reported frequency of renal dysfunction after elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) varies widely in current surgical literature. Published research establishes pre-existing end-stage renal disease as a poor prognostic indicator. We intend to quantify the mortality effect associated with renal morbidity developed postoperatively and to identify modifiable risk factors.

METHODS:

All elective EVAR patients with preoperative and postoperative renal function data captured by the Vascular Quality Initiative between January 2003 and December 2014 were examined. The primary study end point was long-term mortality. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were analyzed to estimate mortality stratified by renal outcome and to describe independent risk factors associated with post-EVAR renal dysfunction.

RESULTS:

This study included 14,475 elective EVAR patients, of whom 96.8% developed no post-EVAR renal dysfunction, 2.9% developed acute kidney injury, and 0.4% developed a new hemodialysis requirement. Estimated 5-year survival was significantly different between groups, 77.5% vs 53.5%, respectively, for the no dysfunction and acute kidney injury groups, whereas the new hemodialysis group demonstrated 22.8% 3-year estimated survival (P < .05). New-onset postoperative congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 3.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-10.38), return to the operating room (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.49-7.13), and postoperative vasopressor requirement (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.40-5.12) predicted post-EVAR renal dysfunction, whereas a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was protective (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21-0.53). Volume of contrast material administered during elective EVAR varies 10-fold among surgeons in the Vascular Quality Initiative database, but the average volume administered to patients is statistically similar, regardless of preoperative eGFR. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated nonsignificant correlation between contrast material volume and postoperative renal dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Any renal dysfunction developing after elective EVAR is associated with decreased estimated long-term survival. Protecting renal function with a rational dosing metric for contrast material linked to preoperative eGFR may better guide treatment.