Dual antiplatelet therapy reduces stroke but increases bleeding at the time of carotid endarterectomy

Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jones DW, Goodney PP, Conrad MF, Nolan BW, Rzucidlo EM, Powell RJ, Cronenwett JL, Stone DH
Year Published 2016
Link to publication

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Controversy persists regarding the perioperative management of clopidogrel among patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This study examined the effect of preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) on in-hospital CEA outcomes.

METHODS:

Patients undergoing CEA in the Vascular Quality Initiative were analyzed (2003-2014). Patients on clopidogrel and aspirin (dual therapy) were compared with patients taking aspirin alone preoperatively. Study outcomes included reoperation for bleeding and thrombotic complications defined as transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, or myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital death and composite stroke/death. Univariate and multivariable analyses assessed differences in demographics and operative factors. Propensity score-matched cohorts were derived to control for subgroup heterogeneity.

RESULTS:

Of 28,683 CEAs, 21,624 patients (75%) were on aspirin and 7059 (25%) were on dual therapy. Patients on dual therapy were more likely to have multiple comorbidities, including coronary artery disease (P < .001), congestive heart failure (P < .001), and diabetes (P < .001). Patients on dual therapy were also more likely to have a drain placed (P < .001) and receive protamine during CEA (P < .001). Multivariable analysis showed that dual therapy was independently associated with increased reoperation for bleeding (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.42; P = .003) but was protective against TIA or stroke (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.87; P = .007), stroke (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.97; P = .03), and stroke/death (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; P = .04). Propensity score matching yielded two groups of 4548 patients and showed that patients on dual therapy were more likely to require reoperation for bleeding (1.3% vs 0.7%; P = .004) but less likely to suffer TIA or stroke (0.9% vs 1.6%; P = .002), stroke (0.6% vs 1.0%; P = .04), or stroke/death (0.7% vs 1.2%; P = .03). Within the propensity score-matched groups, patients on dual therapy had increased rates of reoperation for bleeding regardless of carotid symptom status. However, asymptomatic patients on dual therapy demonstrated reduced rates of TIA or stroke (0.6% vs 1.5%; P < .001), stroke (0.4% vs 0.9%; P = .01), and composite stroke/death (0.5% vs 1.0%; P = .02). Among propensity score-matched patients with symptomatic carotid disease, these differences were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

Preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy was associated with a 40% risk reduction for neurologic events but also incurred a significant increased risk of reoperation for bleeding after CEA. Given its observed overall neurologic protective effect, continued dual antiplatelet therapy throughout the perioperative period is justified. Initiating dual therapy in all patients undergoing CEA may lead to decreased neurologic complication rates.

Vascular Quality Initiative. Relationships between 2-Year Survival, Costs, and Outcomes following Carotid Endarterectomy in Asymptomatic Patients in the Vascular Quality Initiative

Journal Annals of Vascular Surgery
Wallaert JB, Newhall KA, Suckow BD, Brooke BS, Zhang M, Farber AE, Likosky D, Goodney PP
Year Published 2016
Link to publication

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic patients with limited life expectancy may not be beneficial or cost-effective. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among survival, outcomes, and costs within 2 years following CEA among asymptomatic patients.

METHODS:

Prospectively collected data from 3097 patients undergoing CEA for asymptomatic disease from Vascular Quality Initiative VQI registry were linked to Medicare. Models were used to identify predictors of 2-year mortality following CEA. Patients were classified as low, medium, or high risk of death based on this model. Next, we examined costs related to cerebrovascular care, occurrence of stroke, rehospitalization, and reintervention within 2 years following CEA across risk strata.

RESULTS:

Overall, 2-year mortality was 6.7%. Age, diabetes, smoking, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal insufficiency, absence of statin use, and contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were independently associated with a higher risk of death following CEA. In-hospital costs averaged $7500 among patients defined as low risk for death, and exceeded $10,800 among high risk patients. Although long-term costs related to cerebrovascular disease were 2 times higher in patients deemed high risk for death compared with low risk patents ($17,800 vs. $8800, P = 0.001), high risk of death was not independently associated with a high probability of high cost. Predictors of high cost at 2 years were severe contralateral ICA stenosis, dialysis dependence, and American Society for Anesthesia Class 4. Both statin use and CHF were protective of high cost.

CONCLUSIONS:

Greater than 90% of patients undergoing CEA live long enough to realize the benefits of their procedure. Moreover, the long-term costs are supported by the effectiveness of this procedure at all levels of patient risk.

Renal dysfunction and the associated decrease in survival after elective endovascular aneurysm repair

Journal Journal of Vascular Surgery
Zarkowsky DS, Hicks CW, Bostock IC, Stone DH, Eslami M, Goodney PP
Year Published 2016
Link to publication

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The reported frequency of renal dysfunction after elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) varies widely in current surgical literature. Published research establishes pre-existing end-stage renal disease as a poor prognostic indicator. We intend to quantify the mortality effect associated with renal morbidity developed postoperatively and to identify modifiable risk factors.

METHODS:

All elective EVAR patients with preoperative and postoperative renal function data captured by the Vascular Quality Initiative between January 2003 and December 2014 were examined. The primary study end point was long-term mortality. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were analyzed to estimate mortality stratified by renal outcome and to describe independent risk factors associated with post-EVAR renal dysfunction.

RESULTS:

This study included 14,475 elective EVAR patients, of whom 96.8% developed no post-EVAR renal dysfunction, 2.9% developed acute kidney injury, and 0.4% developed a new hemodialysis requirement. Estimated 5-year survival was significantly different between groups, 77.5% vs 53.5%, respectively, for the no dysfunction and acute kidney injury groups, whereas the new hemodialysis group demonstrated 22.8% 3-year estimated survival (P < .05). New-onset postoperative congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 3.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-10.38), return to the operating room (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.49-7.13), and postoperative vasopressor requirement (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.40-5.12) predicted post-EVAR renal dysfunction, whereas a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was protective (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21-0.53). Volume of contrast material administered during elective EVAR varies 10-fold among surgeons in the Vascular Quality Initiative database, but the average volume administered to patients is statistically similar, regardless of preoperative eGFR. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated nonsignificant correlation between contrast material volume and postoperative renal dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Any renal dysfunction developing after elective EVAR is associated with decreased estimated long-term survival. Protecting renal function with a rational dosing metric for contrast material linked to preoperative eGFR may better guide treatment.

Hospice use following implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in older patients: results from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry

Journal Circulation
Authors Kramer D, Reynolds M, Normand S-L, Parzynski C, Spertus J, Mor V, Mitchell S.
Year Published 2016
Link to publication

Abstract

Background—

Older recipients of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are at increased risk for short-term mortality in comparison with younger patients. Although hospice use is common among decedents aged >65, its use among older ICD recipients is unknown.

Methods and Results—

Medicare patients aged >65 matched to data in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry – ICD Registry from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2010 were eligible for analysis (N=194 969). The proportion of ICD recipients enrolled in hospice, cumulative incidence of hospice admission, and factors associated with time to hospice enrollment were evaluated. Five years after device implantation, 50.9% of patients were either deceased or in hospice. Among decedents, 36.8% received hospice services. The cumulative incidence of hospice enrollment, accounting for the competing risk of death, was 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%–4.8%) within 1 year and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.7%–21.8%) at 5 years. Factors most strongly associated with shorter time to hospice enrollment were older age (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.73–1.81), class IV heart failure (versus class I; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.66–1.94); ejection fraction <20 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48–1.67), and greater hospice use among decedents in the patients’ health referral region.

Conclusions—

More than one-third of older patients dying with ICDs receive hospice care. Five years after implantation, half of older ICD recipients are either dead or in hospice. Hospice providers should be prepared for ICD patients, whose clinical trajectories and broader palliative care needs require greater focus.